Selenium Python tutorial

1. 🤖 How it works

Applitools SDKs works with existing test frameworks and simply takes screenshots of the page, element, region or an iframe and uploads them along with DOM snapshots to our Eyes server. Our AI then compares them with previous test executions' screenshots (aka Baselines) and tells if there is a bug or not. It's that simple!

Applitools AI with RCA picture

1.1 Baseline vs. Checkpoint images

When you first run the test, our A.I. server simply stores those first set of screenshots as Baseline images. When you run the same test again (and everytime there after), the A.I. server will compare the new set of screenshots, aka Checkpoint images, with the corresponding Baseline images and higlights differences in pink color.

Baseline vs Checkpoint
The picture above is showing the Side-by-Side view of the baseline and checkpoint images

1.2 Marking the test as "Pass" or "Fail"

When the AI compares the baseline and the checkpoint image, if it finds a legitimate difference, it'll mark the test as Unresolved. This is because the AI doesn't know if the difference is because of a new feature or a real bug and will wait for you to manually mark it as a Pass/Fail for the 1st time.

If you mark the unresolved checkpoint image as a "Fail", any further runs with similar difference will be automatically marked as "Failed".

Mark the checkpoint as a fail
The picture above is showing how to mark the checkpoint image as Failed

If you mark the unresolved checkpoint image as a "Pass", then it means that the difference is due to a new feature and so we update the new checkpoint image as the new baseline and mark the current test as Pass. And going forward we'll compare any future tests with this new baseline.

Mark the checkpoint as a Pass
The picture above is showing how to mark the checkpoint image as Passed

Note:

  • Applitools AI has been trained with 100s of millions of images. It doesn't do a pixel-by-pixel comparison because it leads to a lot of false positives, but instead simulates real human eyes and ignore normal differences that humans would ignore and only highlight those that humans would highlight as bugs.

  • ACCURACY: A.I's current accuracy rate is 99.9999%! Which means for most applications that odds that you'll see false-positives is 1 in a million!

A powerful test results dashboard

We provide a state-of-the-art dashboard that makes it very easy for you to analyze differences, report bugs straight from the dashboard and so on.

Seeing test result summary
The picture above is showing the summary view
2. 🖼 Analyzing differences

The following Gifs shows various tools Applitools provide to easily analyze various differences

Highlight differences between the baseline and checkpoint

Highlight diffs

Zoom into diffs

Zoom into diffs

Toggle differences between baseline and checkpoint

Toggle differences between baseline and checkpoint

Show both baseline and checkpoint side-by-side

Show both baseline and checkpoint side-by-side
3. 🐞 Reporting bugs (straight into Jira or Github) You can simply select a section on the image and directly file a bug in Jira or Github. No need to manually take screenshots, write steps and explain things! Reporting bugs to Jira or Github
4. ✅ Prerequisites
  1. Create a free Applitools account and get the Applitools API KEY API-key

  2. Please set the APPLITOOLS_API_KEY environment variable

    • Mac: export APPLITOOLS_API_KEY='YOUR_API_KEY'

    • Windows: set APPLITOOLS_API_KEY='YOUR_API_KEY'

    TIP

    1. You may skip this step if you want to hard code the API KEY inside the tutorial project's code.
    2. It's better to store APPLITOOLS_API_KEY in the system variables (in Windows) or in the ~/.bash_profile (in Mac) so that it is accessible from all Terminal shells
  3. Install Python 3. [This is a good resource] [https://realpython.com/installing-python/]

  4. Install git from https://git-scm.com​

    TIP

    Installing git is optional. You need this mainly to clone the demo project from the Github repository. Instead of installing git, you can simply download the Zip file from the repo. Further, If you are Mac, you already have git.

  5. Install Google Chrome browser from https://www.google.com/chrome/

  6. Install ChromeDriver on your machine and make sure it's is in the PATH.

Below are some resources from the internet that'll help you

Tip: On Mac, place the chromedriver executable in /usr/local/bin folder so Eclipse and IntelliJ can find it.

5.1 🚀 - Run the existing demo app
  1. Get the code:
    • Option 1: git clone https://github.com/applitools/tutorial-selenium-python.git
    • Option 2: Download it as a Zip file and unzip it.
  2. cd tutorial-selenium-python folder
  3. Note: Remember to set the APPLITOOLS_API_KEY env variable.
  4. pip3 install eyes-selenium
  5. python3 tutorial.py
  6. After you run one set of tests, you now have the baseline. Run the same test but with this URL: https://demo.applitools.com/index_v2.html. This version of the demo app has some visual bugs so you can see how it all works. And the second set of screenshots are called "Checkpoint images".
5.2 🤓 - Add Applitools to an existing project

1. Install the Eyes SDK

pip3 install eyes-selenium
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2. Import the SDK


from applitools.selenium import Eyes, Target

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3. Initialize the SDK

eyes = Eyes()

# Initialize the eyes SDK and set your private API key.
eyes.api_key = os.environ['APPLITOOLS_API_KEY']

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4. Start the test


    // Start the test and set the App name, the Test name and the browser's viewport size to 800x600.
    //Note you may change the Viewport to and make it lager or smaller to test large screens and small screens
    eyes.open(driver, "Test app", "First test", {'width': 800, 'height': 600})
    // Navigate the browser to the "ACME" demo app.
    driver.get('https://demo.applitools.com')

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5. Add eyes.checkWindow to take a screenshot

Every checkWindow or (similar methods such as check, checkRegion, checkElement, checkFrame) take a screenshot and upload it to the server for analysis. And since they are part of the test, each screenshot essentially becomes a test step. Note that you can add as many check statements as you need after you open the tests.


eyes.check("Login Window test", Target.window())

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6. End test

// End the test.
eyes.close()
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7. Get the test results

# Close the browser.
driver.quit()

# If the test was aborted before eyes.close was called, ends the test as aborted.
eyes.abort()

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Everything put togeather

from selenium import webdriver
from applitools.selenium import Eyes, Target
import os


class HelloWorld:

    eyes = Eyes()

    # Initialize the eyes SDK and set your private API key.
    eyes.api_key = os.environ['APPLITOOLS_API_KEY']

    try:

        # Open a Chrome browser.
        driver = webdriver.Chrome()

        # Start the test and set the browser's viewport size to 800x600.
        eyes.open(driver, "Test app", "First test", {'width': 800, 'height': 600})

        # Navigate the browser to the "hello world!" web-site.
        driver.get('https://demo.applitools.com')

        # Visual checkpoint #1.
        eyes.check("Login Window test", Target.window())

        # End the test.
        eyes.close()

    finally:

        # Close the browser.
        driver.quit()

        # If the test was aborted before eyes.close was called, ends the test as aborted.
        eyes.abort()
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⚙️ 7. Troubleshooting Common Issues
  1. Forgetting to set your API key (or getting 401 exception).

  2. Applitools is not opening the app (appears to crash).

    • In order to make sure the screenshots are consistent across different tests runs. Applitools uses Viewport as an input. A viewport is simply the size of the screenshot you are taking (width and height). Applitools tries to resize the browser to that size before taking the screenshot. If you are running the app on a small laptop and/or have set the Viewport much larger than the laptop’s screen, then you’ll see this error.
    • Solution: Reduce the height or the width. For more see here.
  3. Not properly loading the API key from the environment variable into your IDE (like Eclipse).

    • After setting the APPLITOOLS_API_KEY in the environment variable to hold your Applitools API key, open the IDE from the command line terminal (and not from the IDE directly). On Mac, it’d look like this: Open a Terminal and then type: open ~/Applications/Eclipse.app. This will load Eclipse with all the environment variables.
  4. Trying to run the test but nothing happens

    • Check if you the APPLITOOLS_API_KEY is null
  5. Incompatibility between Chrome browser and Chrome driver.

  6. Debug logs

    • See this article to enable debug logs to help file support ticket

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Last Updated: 10/29/2019, 1:28:39 AM